10 Jan physical features of kerala wikipedia
 Foreign cultural contacts have assisted this cultural formation; historians suggest a possible relationship with Indus Valley Civilization during the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age.  It was 0.790 in 2007–08 and it had a consumption-based HDI of 0.920, which is better than that of many developed countries. Ramanathaiyer, Sundar, and Stewart MacPherson.  In foreign-trade circles the region was known as Male or Malabar.  The Dutch in turn were weakened by constant battles with Marthanda Varma of the Travancore Royal Family, and were defeated at the Battle of Colachel in 1741. According to the Constitution of India, Kerala has a parliamentary system of representative democracy; universal suffrage is granted to residents. Tulu and Kannada are spoken mainly in Kasargod district.  They established a trading center at Tangasseri in Quilon during 1502 as per the invitation of the then Queen of Quilon to start spices trade from there. It comprises of a narrow coastal strip bounded by the Western Ghats in the east and the Arabian Sea also called the Lakshadweep Sea on the west. A Malayalam version of Google News was launched in September 2008.  However, Kalaripayattu, regarded as "the mother of all martial arts in the world", is an exception and is practised as the indigenous martial sport.  Travel and Leisure also described Kerala as "One of the 100 great trips for the 21st century".  The Nilambur–Shoranur line is one of the shortest broad gauge railway lines in India. The Varkala, Chirayinkeezhu and Thiruvananthapuram taluks are in the midland and lowland regions, the Nedumangad taluk lies in the midland and highland regions, and the Neyyattinkara taluk stretches over all three. The eastern parts are fertile coastal plains.  Following the recommendations of the Wood's despatch of 1854, the princely states of Travancore and Cochin launched mass education drives mainly based on castes and communities, and introduced a system of grant-in-aid to attract more private initiatives. Malabar is reminiscent of the word Malanad which means the land of hills.  The Arab writers had called this place Malibar, Manibar, Mulibar, and Munibar. Kerala's coastal belt of Karunagappally is known for high background radiation from thorium-containing monazite sand.  Around 600 varieties:5 of rice, which is Kerala's most used staple and cereal crop,:5 are harvested from 3105.21 km2; a decline from 5883.4 km2 in 1990. It is one of the country's oldest state-run public bus transport services. Three quarters of the land area of Kerala was under thick forest up to 18th century.  "The ‘Kudumbashree woman’ and the Kerala model woman: Women and politics in contemporary Kerala.  Kerala's ecotourism destinations include 12 wildlife sanctuaries and two national parks: Periyar Tiger Reserve, Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Thattekad Bird Sanctuary, Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Muthanga Wildlife Sanctuary, Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary, Eravikulam National Park, and Silent Valley National Park are the most popular among them.  The state witnessed significant emigration during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s. , December to February are the coolest months. :8 The state recorded 8.93% growth in enterprises from 1998 to 2005, higher than the national rate of 4.80%.  The state government promotes these activities via educational campaigns and the development of new cattle breeds such as the Sunandini. Among the prominent athletes hailing from the state are P. T. Usha, Shiny Wilson and M.D.  The waters provide a large variety of fish: pelagic species; 59%, demersal species; 23%, crustaceans, molluscs and others for 18%.  However, Kerala's high ratio of taxation to GSDP has not alleviated chronic budget deficits and unsustainable levels of government debt, which have impacted social services. "Jews in India."  These elephants are mainly employed for the processions and displays associated with festivals celebrated all around the state. In 2008, the Persian Gulf countries together had a Keralite population of more than 2.5 million, who sent home annually a sum of US$6.81 billion, which is the highest among Indian states and more than 15.13% of remittances to India in 2008.  Some traditional dance forms such as Margamkali and Parichamuttukali are popular among the Syrian Christians and Chavittu nadakom is popular among the Latin Christians, while Oppana and Duffmuttu were popular among the Muslims of the state.  Queerala is one of the major LGBT organisation in Kerala.  The "Arabian Sea Branch" of the Southwest monsoon first hits the Western Ghats, making Kerala the first state in India to receive rain from the Southwest monsoon.  Football is one of the most widely played and watched sports with huge support for club and district level matches. 1987 pp.  According to some scholars, the Mappilas are the oldest settled Muslim community in South Asia. The Noyyal River runs through Coimbatore and forms the southern boundary of the corporation. Cast Me Out If You Will. Elephants in Kerala seem to share a special bond with its keepers and the people of the state. The agricultural sector has a share of 9.34% in the sectoral distribution of Gross State Domestic Product at Constant Price, while the secondary and tertiary sectors have contributed 23.94% and 66.72%, respectively. CMS College, Kottayam, established in 1817, is the first western-style college, and one of the oldest colleges, in India. The district can be divided into three geographical regions: Highlands, Midlands, and Lowlands. It is known that the Menons in the Malabar region of Kerala were originally strong believers of Jainism. Jainism has a considerable following in the Wayanad district. This is believed to be an underestimate as private hospitals may not be reporting their figures.  The main constraints to the expansion of inland navigation are; lack of depth in waterways caused by silting, lack of maintenance of navigation systems and bank protection, accelerated growth of the water hyacinth, lack of modern inland craft terminals, and lack of a cargo handling system.  As a result, women in Kerala have had a much higher standing and influence in the society.  Around 65% of the rainfall occurs from June to August corresponding to the Southwest monsoon, and the rest from September to December corresponding to Northeast monsoon. :62 In 1991, Kerala became the first state in India to be recognised as completely literate, although the effective literacy rate at that time was only 90%. The elephants play a vital role in all the religious processions and the festivals being celebrated.  Also, Kozhikode hosts Gokulam Kerala FC in the I-League as well as the Sait Nagjee Football Tournament.  Pre-historical archaeological findings include dolmens of the Neolithic era in the Marayur area of the Idukki district. Out of respect, Vasuki and all snakes were appointed as protectors and guardians of the land. The summer season starts in February and continues until May. This region is rich in produce such as paddy, tapioca, rubber, eucalyptus, spices and cashews.  Finally, the Kulasekhara dynasty was subjugated in 1102 by the combined attack of Later Pandyas and Later Cholas.  The state topped in the country to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals according to the annual report of NITI Aayog published in 2019.  However, the Portuguese suffered setbacks from attacks by Zamorin forces in Malabar region; especially from naval attacks under the leadership of Kozhikode admirals known as Kunjali Marakkars, which compelled them to seek a treaty.  It is the first metro system in India to use a communication-based train control (CBTC) system for signalling and telecommunication.  Software giants like Infosys, Oracle, Tata Consultancy Services, Capgemini, HCL, UST Global, NeST and Suntec have offices in the state. These include five classical dance forms: Kathakali, Mohiniyattam, Koodiyattom, Thullal and Krishnanattam, which originated and developed in the temple theatres during the classical period under the patronage of royal houses.  In 1986 the government of Kerala declared tourism an important industry and it was the first state in India to do so.  Cochin International Airport is the busiest in the state and the seventh busiest in the country. Traffic density is nearly four times the national average, reflecting the state's high population. , The state's budget of 2020-2021 was ₹1.15 trillion (US$16 billion). The third National Family Health Survey ranks Kerala first in "Institutional Delivery" with 100% births in medical facilities. See Sahyadri Kanda Chapter 7 in Skanda Purana. India's first coir factory was set up in Alleppey in 1859–60.  Kerala is also widely regarded as the cleanest and healthiest state in India. This creates an upward spiral for both the women and children of the community that is passed on to future generations. 1. , The culture of Kerala is composite and cosmopolitan in nature and it is an integral part of Indian culture.  Palakkad district is generally referred to as the Gateway of Kerala, due to the presence of the Palakkad Gap in the Western Ghats, through which the northern (Malabar) and southern (Travancore) parts of Kerala are connected to the rest of India via road and rail. The state has three principal physical zones; The coastal strip, called Karavalli, between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, which is lowland, with moderate to high rainfall levels. Kerala is one of the major footballing states in India along with West Bengal and Goa and has produced national players like I. M. Vijayan, C. V. Pappachan, V. P. Sathyan, Jo Paul Ancheri, Pappachen Pradeep, C.K.  Fort St Angelo or St. Angelo Fort was built at Kannur in 1505 and Fort St Thomas was built at Kollam(Quilon) in 1518 by the Portuguese. Sikkim is the second smallest state after Goa, but it has many physical features like forests, rivers and mountains around its edges.  A Communist-led government under E. M. S. Namboodiripad resulted from the first elections for the new Kerala Legislative Assembly in 1957. Kerala hosts two major political alliances: the United Democratic Front (UDF), led by the Indian National Congress; and the Left Democratic Front (LDF), led by the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M)). Kerala is the second-least impoverished state in India according to the Annual Report of Reserve Bank of India published in 2013. The second rainy season is the Northeast monsoon. There is a large Keralan diaspora in the Middle East.  Porotta and Biryani are also often found in restaurants in Kerala.  The Paradesi Synagogue at Kochi is the oldest synagogue in the Commonwealth.  According to the 17th-century Malayalam work Keralolpathi, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the axe-wielding warrior sage Parasurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu (hence, Kerala is also called Parasurama Kshetram 'The Land of Parasurama'). There are 67 navigable rivers in the state while the total length of inland waterways is 1,687 kilometres (1,048 mi).  Hindus represent the biggest religious group in all districts except Malappuram, where they are outnumbered by Muslims. In November 2015, the Ministry of Urban Development selected seven cities of Kerala for a comprehensive development program known as the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT).  Kerala is known for its ecotourism initiatives which include mountaineering, trekking and bird-watching programmes in the Western Ghats as the major activities. English is the language of instruction in most self-financing schools, while government and government-aided schools offer instruction in English or Malayalam. The city sits amidst Noyyal's basin area and has an extensive tank system fed by the river and rainwater.  As per the present norms, the state government devolves about 40 per cent of the state plan outlay to the local government. , In 1766, Hyder Ali, the ruler of Mysore invaded northern Kerala. The districts which serve as administrative regions for taxation purposes are further subdivided into 27 revenue subdivisions and 77 taluks, which have fiscal and administrative powers over settlements within their borders, including maintenance of local land records.  Other key crops include coconut; 899,198 ha, tea, coffee; 23% of Indian production,:13 or 57,000 tonnes,:6–7 rubber, cashews, and spices—including pepper, cardamom, vanilla, cinnamon, and nutmeg. He was instrumental in establishing four mathas at Sringeri, Dwarka, Puri and Jyotirmath.  Kerala's 44 rivers include the Periyar; 244 kilometres (152 mi), Bharathapuzha; 209 kilometres (130 mi), Pamba; 176 kilometres (109 mi), Chaliyar; 169 kilometres (105 mi), Kadalundipuzha; 130 kilometres (81 mi), Chalakudipuzha; 130 kilometres (81 mi), Valapattanam; 129 kilometres (80 mi) and the Achankovil River; 128 kilometres (80 mi). Physical Setting Kerala occupies a narrow strip of land, not more than 360 miles (555 km.) Brenda Maddox mentions in: Maddox, Brenda. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. Daily scheduled service has increased from 1,200,000 kilometres (750,000 mi) to 1,422,546 kilometres (883,929 mi), using 6,241 buses on 6,389 routes. Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri was another religious figure who composed Narayaniyam, a collection of verses in praise of the Hindu God Krishna.  Coconut, tea, coffee, cashew, and spices—including cardamom, vanilla, cinnamon, and nutmeg are the main agricultural products. The Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala. It is known among geologists as the "Varkala Formation" and a geological monument as declared by the Geological Survey of India.  Outbreaks of water-borne diseases such as diarrhoea, dysentery, hepatitis, and typhoid among the more than 50% of people who rely on 3 million water wells is an issue worsened by the lack of sewers. :65, Most of the biodiversity is concentrated and protected in the Western Ghats. Apart from introducing the caste system, they also changed the socio-economic life of the people by commissioning new religious centres. It is also the first airport in the world to be fully powered by solar energy and has won the coveted Champion of the Earth award, the highest environmental honour instituted by the United Nations. It depicts purity and elegance.  Other known festivals are Makaravilakku, Chinakkathoor Pooram, Attukal Pongala and Nenmara Vallangi Vela Other than these, festivals locally known as utsavams are conducted by many temples mostly on annual basis.  "Elephants, firework displays and huge crowds" are the major attractions of Thrissur Pooram. All district except Malappuram district had fertility rate below 2. Approximately 42,000 cancer cases are reported in the region annually. In 1571, the Portuguese were defeated by the Zamorin forces in the battle at Chaliyam Fort.  Anamudi in the Idukki district is the highest peak in south India, is at an elevation of 2,695 m (8,842 ft). The forests in the tail end of Western Ghats form the most diverse and unknown ecosystem in Peninsular India..  Scholars hold that Keralaputra is an alternate name of the Cheras, the first dominant dynasty based in Kerala.  The total duration of Onam is 10 days and it is celebrated all across Kerala. George, "Kerala's education system: from inclusion to exclusion", Najith Kumar, K.K. wide, with a total area of 15,002 sq. There is a general attitude that women must be restricted for their own benefit. In comparison with the rest of India, Kerala experiences relatively little sectarianism. S.C. Bhatt, Gopal K. Bhargava (2006) "Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories: Volume 14. The Indian state of Kerala borders with the states of Tamil Nadu on the south and east, Karnataka on the north and the Lakshadweep Sea coastline on the west. The west coast of the state is on the Arabian Sea. Until the early 1980s, Kerala was a relatively unknown destination compared to other states in the country.   It is a local festival of Kerala consisting of a four-day public holidays; from Onam Eve (Uthradam) to the fourth Onam Day. Other than civilian airports, Kochi has a naval airport named INS Garuda. "Fort Cochin in Kerala 1750–1830 The Social Condition of a Dutch Community in an Indian Milieu." :2 While having the opportunities that education affords them, such as political participation, keeping up to date with current events, reading religious texts etc., these tools have still not translated into full, equal rights for the women of Kerala. km.).  Dozens of newspapers are published in Kerala, in nine major languages, but principally Malayalam and English. :11 Its 9,400 km2 of forests include tropical wet evergreen and semi-evergreen forests (lower and middle elevations—3,470 km2), tropical moist and dry deciduous forests (mid-elevations—4,100 km2 and 100 km2, respectively), and montane subtropical and temperate (shola) forests (highest elevations—100 km2). The state has a second major IT hub, the Infopark centred in Kochi with "spokes"(it acts as the "hub") in Thrissur and Alleppy. Elephants have been an integral part of the culture of the state.  With the enactment of Kerala Panchayati Raj Act and Kerala Municipality Act in 1994, the state implemented reforms in local self-governance. The city and the suburbs spans an area of 250 km2 (96.53 sq mi). The northern parts are a mix of hills and plains.  Some social struggles against caste inequalities also erupted in the early decades of 20th century, leading to the 1936 Temple Entry Proclamation that opened Hindu temples in Travancore to all castes. The region's prominence in trade was noted in the works of Pliny as well as the Periplus around 100 CE. Weil, Shalva.  Ma Huan (1403 AD), the Chinese sailor part of the Imperial Chinese fleet under Cheng Ho (Zheng He) states the city as a great emporium of trade frequented by merchants from around the world. E., "Mappila" in "The Encyclopedia of Islam".  According to the 2011 census, Kerala has a 93.91% literacy, compared to the national literacy rate of 74.04%.  The Matsya Purana, among the oldest of the 18 Puranas, uses the Malaya Mountains of Kerala (and Tamil Nadu) as the setting for the story of Matsya, the first incarnation of Vishnu, and Manu, the first man and the king of the region. The accidents are mainly the result of the narrow roads and irresponsible driving. It is generally considered as the winter season.  In April 2016, the Economic Times reported that 250,000 residents undergo treatment for cancer. :79 Kerala's spices attracted ancient Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians to the Malabar Coast in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE.  The Indian Hockey team captain P. R. Shreejesh, ace goalkeeper hails from Kerala. The Grand Kerala Shopping Festival (GKSF) was started in 2007, covering more than 3000 outlets across the nine cities of Kerala with huge tax discounts, VAT refunds and huge array of prizes.  Opportunities for women such as education and gainful employment often translate into a lower birth rate, which in turn, make education and employment more likely to be accessible and more beneficial for women. (60 metres (197 ft)) Agastya Mala, which has an elevation of 1,868 metres (6,129 ft) is only about 60 km from the city. The Deccan Plateau- a triangular landmass lying on the south of the Narmada River.  Consequently, investment in rice production decreased and a major portion of the land shifted to the cultivation of perennial tree crops and seasonal crops.  Raga-based renditions known as sopanam accompany kathakali performances. and Multinational corporations like KPMG, Ernst & Young, EXL Service, Etisalat DB Telecom, Nielsen Audio, Xerox ACS, Tata ELXSI etc.  At that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil: Chera and Kera are variants of the same word. Physical features of India 2.  Kerala's coastal regions are the most densely settled with population of 2022 persons per km2, 2.5 times the overall population density of the state, 859 persons per km2, leaving the eastern hills and mountains comparatively sparsely populated. Christian missionaries also influenced Malayali women in that they started schools for girls from poor families. :10–12, There is a tradition of matrilineal inheritance in Kerala, where the mother is the head of the household. Abdur Razzak (1442–43), Niccolò de' Conti (1445), Afanasy Nikitin (1468–74), Ludovico di Varthema (1503–1508), and Duarte Barbosa witnessed the city as one of the major trading centres in the Indian subcontinent where traders from different parts of the world could be seen.. For other uses, see. Kerala has focused more attention towards growth of Information Technology sector with formation of Technopark, Thiruvananthapuram which is one of the largest IT employer in Kerala. Thalassery biryani is popular as an ethnic brand.  In 2012, it overtook the Taj Mahal to be the number one travel destination in Google's search trends for India. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Districts of Kerala, south India. This was common among certain influential castes and is a factor in the value placed on daughters.  Comparatively higher spending by the government on primary level education, health care and the elimination of poverty from the 19th century onwards has helped the state maintain an exceptionally high HDI; the report was prepared by the central government's Institute of Applied Manpower Research. Kerala is one of the smallest states of India. The Zamorin allied with Arab and Chinese merchants and used most of the wealth from Kozhikode to develop his military power. , Kerala was alternatively called Kerala as well as Malabar.  The child marriage is lower in Kerala.The Malappuram district has the highest number of child marriage and the number of such cases are increasing in Malappuram. Kollam Airport, established under the Madras Presidency, but since closed, was the first airport in Kerala.  The Western Ghats form a wall of mountains interrupted only near Palakkad; hence also known Palghat, where the Palakkad Gap breaks. Kerala is a state on the southwestern Malabar Coast of India. In some coastal panchayats, median outdoor radiation levels are more than 4 mGy/yr and, in certain locations on the coast, it is as high as 70 mGy/yr.  In October 2017, Kochi Metro was named the "Best Urban Mobility Project" in India by the Urban Development Ministry, as part of the Urban Mobility India (UMI) International Conference hosted by the ministry every year.. It is surrounded by the Western Ghats mountain range on the West and North, with reserve forests and the (Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve) on the northern side. Vasudevan Nair and O.N.V. , According to the first economic census, conducted in 1977, 99.7% of the villages in Kerala had a primary school within 2 kilometres (1.2 mi), 98.6% had a middle school within 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) and 96.7% had a high school or higher secondary school within 5 kilometres (3.1 mi).  Other major sectors are tourism, manufacturing, home gardens, animal husbandry and business process outsourcing.  On 1 November 1956, the taluk of Kasargod in the South Kanara district of Madras, the Malabar district of Madras, and Travancore-Cochin, without four southern taluks (which joined Tamil Nadu), merged to form the state of Kerala under the States Reorganisation Act.  According to a study commissioned by Lien Foundation, a Singapore-based philanthropic organisation, Kerala is considered to be the best place to die in India based on the state's provision of palliative care for patients with serious illnesses. in M.Avrum Erlich (ed.  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